A Precision Medicine Approach to Stress Testing Using Metabolomics and Microribonucleic Acids
ABSTRACTBackgroundAcute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a growing global health problem, and precision medicine techniques hold promise for the development of diagnostic indicators of ACS. In this pilot, we sought to assess the utility of an integrated analysis of metabolomic and microRNA data in peripheral blood to distinguish patients with abnormal cardiac stress testing from matched controls.MethodsWe used prospectively collected samples from emergency department (ED) patients placed in an ED-based observation unit who underwent stress testing for ACS. We isolated microRNA and quantified metabolites from plasma collected before and after stress testing in patients with myocardial ischemia on stress testing versus those with normal stress tests. The combined metabolomic and microRNA data were analyzed jointly for case (ischemia) and 1:1 matched control patients in a supervised, dimension-reducing discriminant analysis. Two integrative models were implemented: a baseline model utilizing data collected prior to stress-testing (T0) and a stress-delta model, which included the difference between post-stress test (T1) and pre-stress test (T0).ResultsSeven case patients with myocardial ischemia on ED cardiac stress testing (6 females, 85% Caucasian, mean Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction Score=3, 4 patients ultimately received percutaneous coronary intervention) were 1:1 age and sex-matched to controls. Several metabolites and microRNAs were differentially expressed between cases and controls. Integrative analysis of the baseline levels of metabolites and microRNA expression showed modest performance for distinguishing cases from controls with an overall error rate of 0.143. The stress-delta model showed worse performance for distinguishing cases from controls, with an overall error rate of 0.500.ConclusionsGiven our small sample size, results are hypothesis-generating. However, this pilot study shows a potential method for a precision medicine approach to cardiac stress testing in patients undergoing workup for ACS.
Limkakeng, AT; Rowlette, L-L; Hatch, A; Nixon, AB; Ilkayeva, O; Corcoran, DL; Modliszewski, JL; Griffin, SM; Tsalik, EL; Ginsburg, GS; Voora, D
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