Chlorpyrifos accumulation patterns for child-accessible surfaces and objects and urinary metabolite excretion by children for 2 weeks after crack-and-crevice application.
The Children's Post-Pesticide Application Exposure Study (CPPAES) was conducted to look at the distribution of chlorpyrifos within a home environment for 2 weeks after a routine professional crack-and-crevice application and to determine the amount of the chlorpyrifos that is absorbed by a child living within the home. Ten residential homes with a 2- to 5-year-old child in each were selected for study, and the homes were treated with chlorpyrifos. Pesticide measurements were made from the indoor air, indoor surfaces, and plush toys. In addition, periodic morning urine samples were collected from each of the children throughout the 2-week period. We analyzed the urine samples for 3,5,6-trichloropyridinol, the primary urinary metabolite of chlorpyrifos, and used the results to estimate the children's absorbed dose. Average chlorpyrifos levels in the indoor air and surfaces were 26 (pretreatment)/120 (posttreatment) ng/m3 and 0.48 (pretreatment)/2.8 (posttreatment) ng/cm2, respectively, reaching peak levels between days 0 and 2; subsequently, concentrations decreased throughout the 2-week period. Chlorpyrifos in/on the plush toys ranged from 7.3 to 1,949 ng/toy postapplication, with concentrations increasing throughout the 2-week period, demonstrating a cumulative adsorption/absorption process indoors. The daily amount of chlorpyrifos estimated to be absorbed by the CPPAES children postapplication ranged from 0.04 to 4.8 microg/kg/day. During the 2 weeks after the crack-and-crevice application, there was no significant increase in the amount of chlorpyrifos absorbed by the CPPAES children.
Hore, P; Robson, M; Freeman, N; Zhang, J; Wartenberg, D; Ozkaynak, H; Tulve, N; Sheldon, L; Needham, L; Barr, D; Lioy, PJ
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