Mechanism of Rate Acceleration of Radical C-C Bond Formation Reaction by a Radical SAM GTP 3',8-Cyclase.
While the number of characterized radical S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) enzymes is increasing, the roles of these enzymes in radical catalysis remain largely ambiguous. In radical SAM enzymes, the slow radical initiation step kinetically masks the subsequent steps, making it impossible to study the kinetics of radical chemistry. Due to this kinetic masking, it is unknown whether the subsequent radical reactions require rate acceleration by the enzyme active site. Here, we report the first evidence that a radical SAM enzyme MoaA accelerates the radical-mediated C-C bond formation. MoaA catalyzes an unprecedented 3',8-cyclization of GTP into 3',8-cyclo-7,8-dihydro-GTP (3',8-cH2GTP) during the molybdenum cofactor (Moco) biosynthesis. Through a series of EPR and biochemical characterizations, we found that MoaA catalyzes a shunt pathway in which an on-pathway intermediate, GTP C-3' radical, abstracts H-4' atom from (4'R)-5'-deoxyadenosine (5'-dA) to transiently generate 5'-deoxyadenos-4'-yl radical (5'-dA-C4'•) that is subsequently reduced stereospecifically to yield (4'S)-5'-dA. Detailed kinetic characterization of the shunt and the main pathways provided the comprehensive view of MoaA kinetics and determined the rate of the on-pathway 3',8-cyclization step as 2.7 ± 0.7 s-1. Together with DFT calculations, this observation suggested that the 3',8-cyclization by MoaA is accelerated by 6-9 orders of magnitude. Further experimental and theoretical characterizations suggested that the rate acceleration is achieved mainly by constraining the triphosphate and guanine base positions while leaving the ribose flexible, and a transition state stabilization through H-bond and electrostatic interactions with the positively charged R17 residue. This is the first evidence for rate acceleration of radical reactions by a radical SAM enzyme and provides insights into the mechanism by which radical SAM enzymes accelerate radical chemistry.
Pang, H; Lilla, EA; Zhang, P; Zhang, D; Shields, TP; Scott, LG; Yang, W; Yokoyama, K
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