Regulation of ferroptosis in cancer cells by YAP/TAZ and Hippo pathways: The therapeutic implications
© 2020 Chongqing Medical University Ferroptosis is a novel form of iron-dependent cell death characterized by lipid peroxidation. While the importance and disease relevance of ferroptosis is gaining recognition, much remains unknown about various genetic and non-genetic determinants of ferroptosis. Hippo signaling pathway is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that responds to various environmental cues and controls organ size, cell proliferation, death, and self-renewal capacity. In cancer biology, Hippo pathway is a potent tumor suppressing mechanism and its dysregulation contributes to apoptosis evasion, cancer development, metastasis, and treatment resistance. Hippo dysregulation leads to aberrant activation of YAP and TAZ, the two major transcription co-activators of TEADs, that induce the expression of genes triggering tumor-promoting phenotypes, including enhanced cell proliferation, self-renewal and apoptosis inhibition. The Hippo pathway is regulated by the cell–cell contact and cellular density/confluence. Recently, ferroptosis has also been found being regulated by the cellular contact and density. The YAP/TAZ activation under low density, while confers apoptosis resistance, renders cancer cells sensitivity to ferroptosis. These findings establish YAP/TAZ and Hippo pathways as novel determinants of ferroptosis. Therefore, inducing ferroptosis may have therapeutic potential for YAP/TAZ-activated chemo-resistant and metastatic tumor cells. Reciprocally, various YAP/TAZ-targeting treatments under clinical development may confer ferroptosis resistance, limiting the therapeutic efficacy.
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