Targeting GSNOR for functional recovery in a middle-aged mouse model of stroke.
The nitric oxide (NO) metabolome and the NO metabolite-based neurovascular protective pathways are dysregulated after stroke. The major NO metabolite S-nitrosoglutahione (GSNO) is essential for S-nitrosylation-based signaling events and the inhibition of S-nitrosoglutahione (GSNO)-metabolizing enzyme GSNO reductase (GSNOR) provides protective effects following cardiac ischemia. However, the role of GSNOR and GSNOR inhibition-mediated increased GSNO/S-nitrosylation is not understood in neurovascular diseases such as stroke. Because age is the major risk factor of stroke and recovery in aged stroke patients is low and slow, we investigated the efficacy of GSNOR inhibition using a GSNOR selective inhibitor N6022 in a clinically relevant middle-aged cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (IR) mouse model of stroke. N6022 (5 mg/kg; iv) treatment of IR mice at 2 h after reperfusion followed by the treatment of the same dose daily for 3 days reduced the infarct volume and decreased the neurological score. Daily treatment of IR animals with N6022 for 2 weeks significantly improved neurological score, brain infarctions/atrophy, survival rate, motor (measured by cylinder test) and cognitive (evaluated by novel object recognition test) functions which paralleled the decreased activity of GSNOR, reduced levels of peroxynitrite and decreased neurological score. These results are the first evidence of a new pathway for the treatment of stroke via the inhibition of GSNOR. Based on the efficacy of N6022 in the stroke animal model and its use in human therapeutic studies without toxicity, we submit that GSNOR is a druggable target, and N6022 is a promising drug candidate for human stroke therapy.
Khan, M; Kumar, P; Qiao, F; Islam, SMT; Singh, AK; Won, J-S; Feng, W; Singh, I
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