Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging as surveillance for subsequent malignancies in preadolescent, adolescent, and young adult survivors of germline retinoblastoma: An update.
BACKGROUND: Germline retinoblastoma (Rb) survivors are at lifelong risk for developing subsequent malignancies (SMNs). Optimal surveillance modalities are needed to detect SMN at an early stage in this high-risk cohort. We investigated the use of rapid whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) as a noninvasive screening modality in this cohort. PROCEDURE: WB-MRI was performed in asymptomatic preadolescent, adolescent, or young adult survivors of germline Rb from February 1, 2008 to December 31, 2018 at a tertiary cancer center. We calculated sensitivity and specificity of WB-MRI and rate of false-positive findings requiring additional evaluation. RESULTS: Overall, 110 WB-MRI were performed in 47 germline Rb survivors (51% female; median age at initial WB-MRI: 15.5 years [range 8-25.3]). Patients received 1-10 annual WB-MRI examinations (median: two). Thirteen patients had an abnormal WB-MRI; three findings were deemed to be likely benign and were not evaluated further. Ten patients required dedicated imaging and three required biopsy; two patients were diagnosed with localized high-grade osteosarcoma, while the other eight had benign findings. One patient was diagnosed with secondary osteosarcoma 3 months after normal WB-MRI. In total, there were 96 true negatives, 11 false positives, two true positives, and one false negative. The sensitivity of WB-MRI in this cohort was 66.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.2-96.0) and the specificity was 89.7% (95% CI, 83.6-93.7). CONCLUSIONS: Based on our 10-year experience, surveillance WB-MRI appears to have limited utility as a surveillance modality for SMN in germline Rb survivors. Alternate screening modalities should be investigated.
Friedman, DN; Hsu, M; Moskowitz, CS; Francis, JH; Lis, E; Fleischut, MH; Oeffinger, KC; Walsh, M; Tonorezos, ES; Sklar, CA; Abramson, DH; Dunkel, IJ
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