Therapeutic implications of shared mechanisms in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and chronic kidney disease.
The most common cause of liver disease worldwide is now non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD refers to a spectrum of disease ranging from steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, causing cirrhosis, and ultimately hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the impact of NAFLD is not limited to the liver. NAFLD has extra-hepatic consequences, most notably, cardiovascular and renal disease. NAFLD and chronic kidney disease share pathogenic mechanisms including insulin resistance, lipotoxicity, inflammation and oxidative stress. Not surprisingly, there has been a recent surge in efforts to manage NAFLD in an integrated way that not only protects the liver but also delays comorbidities such as chronic kidney disease. This concept of simultaneously addressing the main disease target and comorbidities is key to improve outcomes, as recently demonstrated by clinical trials of SGLT2 inhibitors and GLP1 receptor agonists in diabetes. HIF activators, already marketed in China, also have the potential to protect both liver and kidney, as suggested by preclinical data. This review concisely discusses efforts at identifying common pathogenic pathways between NAFLD and chronic kidney disease with an emphasis on potential paradigm shifts in diagnostic workup and therapeutic management.
Kanbay, M; Bulbul, MC; Copur, S; Afsar, B; Sag, AA; Siriopol, D; Kuwabara, M; Badarau, S; Covic, A; Ortiz, A
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