Development and initial validation of the Hopelessness Inventory for Later Life (HILL).

Journal Article (Journal Article)

OBJECTIVES: Hopelessness is associated with depression, physical illness, and mortality. It is a key risk factor for suicidality in later life. Limitations have been identified in available hopelessness assessment measures regarding their use with older adults. The current study describes the development and initial psychometric evaluation of a content-valid, self-report scale for late-life hopelessness (i.e. the Hopelessness Inventory for Later Life; HILL). METHODS: A sample of 265 older adults (ages 60-99, M = 71.1, SD = 6.7) was recruited through a combination of in-person, online, and mailed solicitations. Participants completed a survey battery containing the preliminary HILL and measures of related constructs (e.g. depression, anxiety, suicide risk, social support) to examine its psychometric properties. RESULTS: Multiple analytic item selection strategies resulted in two viable versions of the scale: the HILL and the HILL-Shortened (HILL-S). Both exhibited strong item response characteristics and preliminary evidence of unidimensionality (via factor analysis), internal consistency (α = .96 and α = .89, respectively), and construct validity (via correlations with related constructs). CONCLUSION: Findings provide preliminary psychometric support for both the HILL and HILL-S. Advantages for use of the HILL and the HILL-S over existing measures of hopelessness are discussed.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Gregg, JJ; Cui, R; Edelstein, BA; Fiske, A

Published Date

  • September 2021

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 25 / 9

Start / End Page

  • 1740 - 1749

PubMed ID

  • 32426988

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1364-6915

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1080/13607863.2020.1768213


  • eng

Conference Location

  • England