Long-Term Effects of Copper Nanopesticides on Soil and Sediment Community Diversity in Two Outdoor Mesocosm Experiments.
The use of novel pesticides containing nanomaterials (nanopesticides) is growing and is considered a promising approach to reduce the impacts of agriculture on the environment and human health. However, the environmental effects of these novel agrochemicals are not fully characterized, and more research is needed to determine the benefits and risks they confer. Here, we assessed the impacts of repeated exposures to a Cu(OH)2 nanopesticide on the soil and sediment biodiversity of target (terrestrial) and nontarget (wetland) ecosystems by performing long-term outdoor mesocosm experiments. As pesticides are often used concomitantly with other agrochemicals, we also tested for interactive effects between nanopesticide exposure and fertilization treatments in both ecosystems. We used high-throughput sequencing on three marker genes to characterize effects on bacterial, fungal, and total eukaryotic community structure and diversity. Interestingly, we found limited effects of nanopesticide exposure on the terrestrial soil communities. Conversely, we found significant shifts in the sediment communities of the wetland mesocosms, especially for eukaryotes (protists, fungi, and algae). In the absence of fertilization, fungal and total eukaryotic community compositions exposed to nanopesticides for long periods of time were distinct from unexposed communities. We identified 60 taxa that were significantly affected by nanopesticide exposure, most of which were microeukaryotes affiliated to cercozoans, Gastrotricha, or unicellular algal taxa. Our study suggests that this nanopesticide has limited effects on the soil biodiversity of a target terrestrial agroecosystem, while nontarget aquatic communities are more sensitive, particularly among protists which are not targeted by this bactericide/fungicide.
Carley, LN; Panchagavi, R; Song, X; Davenport, S; Bergemann, CM; McCumber, AW; Gunsch, CK; Simonin, M
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