Racial and socioeconomic disparities associated with 90-day mortality among patients with head and neck cancer in the United States.
OBJECTIVES: To quantify head and neck cancer (HNC) mortality rates and identify racial and socioeconomic factors associated with 90-day mortality. METHODS: The National Cancer Database (2004-2014) was queried for eligible HNC cases (n = 260,011) among adults treated with curative intent. Outcome of interest was any-cause 90-day mortality. Kaplan-Meier curves (Log-rank tests) estimated crude survival differences. A Cox proportional hazards model with further adjustments using the Šidák multiple comparison method adjusted for racial, socioeconomic and clinical factors. RESULTS: There were 9771 deaths (90-day mortality rate = 3.8%). There were crude differences in sex, race/ethnicity, comorbidity, distance, income, and insurance (Log-rank p-value < 0.0001). In the final model, blacks (aHR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.00, 1.21) and males (aHR = 1.07; 95% CI 1.00, 1.15) had greater 90-day mortality hazard, as did those uninsured (aHR = 1.72; 95% CI 1.48, 1.99), covered by Medicaid (aHR = 1.72; 95% CI 1.53, 1.93) or Medicare (aHR = 1.40; 95% CI 1.27, 1.53). Residence in lower median income zip code was associated with greater 90-day mortality [(aHR <$30,000 = 1.30; 95% CI 1.18, 1.44); (aHR $30,000-$34,999 = 1.24; 95% CI 1.13, 1.36); (aHR $35,000-$45,999 = 1.18; 95% CI 1.08, 1.27)]; and farther travel distance for treatment was associated with decreased 90-day mortality [(aHR 50-249.9 miles = 0.86; 95% CI 0.77, 0.97); (aHR > 250 miles = 0.70; 95% CI 50, 0.99)]. CONCLUSIONS: There are significant race and socioeconomic disparities among patients with HNC, and these disparities impact mortality within 90 days of treatment.
Gaubatz, ME; Bukatko, AR; Simpson, MC; Polednik, KM; Adjei Boakye, E; Varvares, MA; Osazuwa-Peters, N
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