NFκB-mediated CXCL1 production in spinal cord astrocytes contributes to the maintenance of bone cancer pain in mice.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

BACKGROUND: Bone cancer pain (BCP) is one of the most disabling factors in patients suffering from primary bone cancer or bone metastases. Recent studies show several chemokines (for example, CCL2, CXCL10) in the spinal cord are involved in the pathogenesis of BCP. Here we investigated whether and how spinal CXCL1 contributes to BCP. METHODS: Mouse prostate tumor cell line, RM-1 cells were intramedullary injected into the femur to induce BCP. The mRNA expression of CXCL1 and CXCR2 was detected by quantitative real-time PCR. The protein expression and distribution of CXCL1, NFκB, and CXCR2 was examined by immunofluorescence staining and western blot. The effect of CXCL1 neutralizing antibody, NFκB antagonist, and CXCR2 antagonist on pain hypersensitivity was checked by behavioral testing. RESULTS: Intramedullary injection of RM-1 cells into the femur induced cortical bone damage and persistent (>21 days) mechanical allodynia and heat hyperalgesia. Tumor cell inoculation also produced CXCL1 upregulation in activated astrocytes in the spinal cord for more than 21 days. Inhibition of CXCL1 by intrathecal administration of CXCL1 neutralizing antibody at 7 days after inoculation attenuated mechanical allodynia and heat hyperalgesia. In cultured astrocytes, TNF-α induced robust CXCL1 expression, which was dose-dependently decreased by NFκB inhibitor. Furthermore, inoculation induced persistent NFκB phosphorylation in spinal astrocytes. Intrathecal injection of NFκB inhibitor attenuated BCP and reduced CXCL1 increase in the spinal cord. Finally, CXCR2, the primary receptor of CXCL1, was upregulated in dorsal horn neurons after inoculation. Inhibition of CXCR2 by its selective antagonist SB225002 attenuated BCP. CONCLUSION: NFκB mediates CXCL1 upregulation in spinal astrocytes in the BCP model. In addition, CXCL1 may be released from astrocytes and act on CXCR2 on neurons in the spinal cord and be involved in the maintenance of BCP. Inhibition of the CXCL1 signaling may provide a new therapy for BCP management.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Xu, J; Zhu, M-D; Zhang, X; Tian, H; Zhang, J-H; Wu, X-B; Gao, Y-J

Published Date

  • March 1, 2014

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 11 /

Start / End Page

  • 38 -

PubMed ID

  • 24580964

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC3941254

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1742-2094

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1186/1742-2094-11-38


  • eng

Conference Location

  • England