The association of hepatitis C infection with the onset of CKD and progression into ESRD.

Journal Article (Review;Journal Article)

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is not only an important cause of chronic liver disease, but extrahepatic manifestations are common and include chronic kidney disease (CKD). HCV is classically associated with cryoglobulinemic glomerulonephritis in the context of mixed cryoglobulinemia syndrome, but other glomerular diseases also occur and may be significantly under-recognized. HCV may cause glomerular disease by immune complex deposition; however, other potential mechanisms by which HCV promotes CKD include a direct cytopathic effect of the virus on renal tissue, and by its association with accelerated atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, and chronic inflammation. Epidemiologic studies show HCV infection confers an increased risk of incident CKD and accelerates progression of CKD to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the general population, as well as subpopulations including diabetic patients, those coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and kidney transplant recipients. Patients with CKD and HCV infection experience inferior clinical outcomes, including poorer quality of life and an increased risk of mortality. Treatment with interferon-based regimens is associated with decreased risk of incident CKD and ESRD, though prior studies are limited by the small number of patients with HCV and CKD who underwent treatment. With the advent of new, well-tolerated direct-acting antiviral combinations that are not cleared by the kidneys, it is possible to treat all genotypes of HCV infection in patients with CKD and ESRD. More data on the effect of direct-acting antivirals on CKD incidence and progression are necessary. However, there is every expectation that with improved access to HCV treatment, the burden of CKD in patients with HCV could significantly decline.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Henson, JB; Sise, ME

Published Date

  • March 2019

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 32 / 2

Start / End Page

  • 108 - 118

PubMed ID

  • 30496620

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC6410728

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1525-139X

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0894-0959

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1111/sdi.12759


  • eng