Update on Nocardia infections in solid-organ transplantation.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nocardia is a ubiquitous pathogen associated with life-threatening opportunistic infections. Organ transplant recipients are uniquely predisposed to Nocardia infections due to their iatrogenic cell-mediated immune deficit necessary to maintain allograft function. This review aims to address recent updates in the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostics, treatment, and outcomes of Nocardia infections in solid-organ transplant recipients. RECENT FINDINGS: The incidence of Nocardia infection depends on multiple patient and environmental factors. Among transplant recipients, lung recipients are most commonly affected. Species identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing are critical for optimizing therapy as substantial variation occurs among and within Nocardia spp. This has been increasingly accomplished through advances in molecular methods leading to improved accuracy and wider accessibility to testing. There are emerging data applying novel therapeutics and short course therapy that may offer alternative management approaches for transplant associated nocardiosis to minimize drug toxicity and intolerance. SUMMARY: Further prospective, multicenter studies are needed to better characterize the epidemiology of Nocardia in transplant recipients, as well as evaluate the impact of diagnostic advancements and new treatment strategies.
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