Racial Differences in Diuretic Efficiency, Plasma Renin, and Rehospitalization in Subjects With Acute Heart Failure.
BACKGROUND: Black patients have higher rates of hospitalization for acute heart failure than other race/ethnic groups. We sought to determine whether diuretic efficiency is associated with racial differences in risk for rehospitalization after acute heart failure. METHODS: A post hoc analysis was performed on 721 subjects (age, 68±13 years; 22% black) enrolled in 3 acute heart failure clinical trials: ROSE-AHF (Renal Optimization Strategies Evaluation in Acute Heart Failure), DOSE-AHF (Diuretic Optimization Strategy Evaluation in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure), and CARRESS-HF (Cardiorenal Rescue Study in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure). Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to test for a race×time effect on measures of decongestion. Diuretic efficiency was calculated as net fluid balance per total furosemide equivalents. In a subset of subjects, Cox regression was used to examine the association between race and rehospitalization according to plasma renin activity (PRA). RESULTS: Compared with nonblack patients, black patients were younger and more likely to have nonischemic heart failure. During the first 72 to 96 hours, there was greater fluid loss (P=0.001), decrease in NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide; P=0.002), and lower levels of PRA (P<0.0001) in black patients. Diuretic efficiency was higher in black than in nonblack patients (403 [interquartile range, 221-795] versus 325 [interquartile range, 154-698]; P=0.014). However, adjustment for baseline PRA attenuated the association between black race and diuretic efficiency. Over a median follow-up of 68 (interquartile range, 56-177) days, there was an increased risk of all-cause and heart failure-specific rehospitalization in nonblack patients with increasing levels of PRA, while the risk of rehospitalization was relatively constant across levels of PRA in black patients. CONCLUSIONS: Higher diuretic efficiency in black patients with acute heart failure may be related to racial differences in activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.
Morris, AA; Nayak, A; Ko, Y-A; D'Souza, M; Felker, GM; Redfield, MM; Tang, WHW; Testani, JM; Butler, J
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