Effect of a health-education program using motivational interviewing on oral health behavior and self-efficacy in pregnant women: a randomized controlled trial.
Oral health problems are common among pregnant women. The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI) as a behavior-change technique to enhance self-efficacy and oral health among pregnant women. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 112 pregnant Iranian women. Women in the intervention group received an education program on oral health using MI during two face-to-face sessions, along with routine health education (two 1-h lectures on oral health changes and needs during pregnancy presented as a lecture by an oral health technician over a 2-wk period). Those in the control group received two 1-h lectures on oral health changes and needs during pregnancy. Oral health behaviors, oral health self-efficacy, and general self-efficacy, were assessed, along with gingival and dental health from baseline to the 3-month follow-up. Analysis of covariance was used to determine differences between intervention and control groups. Scores for both general and specific self-efficacy and for healthy behaviors increased in the intervention group, whereas there was no significant change within controls from baseline to follow-up. Between-group analyses also indicated a significant difference in the scores for self-efficacy and behavior favoring the intervention group. Scores on the gingival inflammation index decreased, as did the number of decayed teeth in the intervention group relative to the control group. The number of filled teeth increased significantly in the intervention group. Health education interventions using MI techniques may help to improve oral health-related self-efficacy and behaviors among pregnant women.
Saffari, M; Sanaeinasab, H; Mobini, M; Sepandi, M; Rashidi-Jahan, H; Sehlo, MG; Koenig, HG
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