Importance: Identifying disparities in uveal melanoma (UM) treatment patterns and survival across racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic (SES) groups reveals possible inequities in ophthalmologic health care. Objective: To examine the association of race, ethnicity, and SES with UM treatment and survival. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort analysis of 28% of the US population using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 registries from January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2014, was conducted. Data analysis was performed from April to July 2018. SEER identified 4475 individuals using International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, Third Edition site and morphology codes. Exposures: Race, ethnicity, and SES estimated by tertile using Yost Index composite scores. Main Outcomes and Measures: Treatment odds ratios (ORs), 1-year and 5-year survival estimates, mortality hazard ratios (HRs), and Kaplan-Meier survival curves. Hypothesis was formulated before data collection. Results: Multivariate analyses of 4475 individuals (2315 [51.7%] men; non-Hispanic white, 4130 [92.3%]; nonwhite, 345 [7.7%]) showed that patients who were nonwhite (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.12-1.88) and socioeconomically disadvantaged (lower SES: OR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.82-2.68; middle SES: OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.56-2.21) were more likely to receive primary enucleation. No interactions were observed between race/ethnicity, SES, and stage at diagnosis. From 2004 to 2014, rates of primary enucleation decreased across all racial/ethnic and SES groups, but disparities persisted. Socioeconomically disadvantaged patients had lower 5-year all-cause survival rates (lower SES: 69.2%; middle SES: 68.1%; and upper SES: 73.8%), although disease-specific survival did not vary significantly by racial/ethnic or SES strata. Mortality risk was associated with older age at diagnosis (56-68 years: HR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.44-2.01; ≥69 years: HR, 3.32; 95% CI, 2.85-3.86), advanced stage of UM (stage 2: HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.19-1.65; stage 3: HR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.87-2.73; and stage 4: HR, 10.09; 95% CI, 7.39-13.77), and treatment with primary enucleation (HR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.88-2.44) with no racial/ethnic or SES variation. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, SEER data from 2004 to 2014 suggest that nonwhite and socioeconomically disadvantaged patients with UM are more likely to be treated with primary enucleation, although no such variation appears to exist in disease-specific survival. These differences reveal opportunities to address issues regarding treatment choice in UM.