Influence of Sex on Platelet Reactivity in Response to Aspirin.
Background There are sex differences in the efficacy and safety of aspirin for the prevention of myocardial infarction and stroke. Whether this is explained by underlying differences in platelet reactivity and aspirin response remains poorly understood. Methods and Results Healthy volunteers (n=378 208 women) and patients with coronary artery disease or coronary artery disease risk factors (n=217 112 women) took aspirin for 4 weeks. Light transmittance aggregometry using platelet-rich plasma was used to measure platelet reactivity in response to epinephrine, collagen, and ADP at baseline, 3 hours after the first aspirin dose, and after 4 weeks of daily aspirin therapy. A subset of patients underwent pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic assessment with levels of salicylate and cyclooxygenase-1-derived prostaglandin metabolites and light transmittance aggregometry in response to arachidonic acid and after ex vivo exposure to aspirin. At baseline, women had increased platelet aggregation in response to ADP and collagen. Innate platelet response to aspirin, assessed with ex vivo aspirin exposure of baseline platelets, did not differ by sex. Three hours after the first oral aspirin dose, platelet aggregation was inhibited in women to a greater degree in response to epinephrine and to a lesser degree with collagen. After 4 weeks of daily therapy, despite higher salicylate concentrations and greater cyclooxygenase-1 inhibition, women exhibited an attenuation of platelet inhibition in response to epinephrine and ADP. Conclusions We observed agonist-dependent sex differences in platelet responses to aspirin. Despite higher cyclooxygenase-1 inhibition, daily aspirin exposure resulted in a paradoxical attenuation of platelet inhibition in response to epinephrine and ADP over time in women but not in men.
Friede, KA; Infeld, MM; Tan, RS; Knickerbocker, HJ; Myers, RA; Dubois, LG; Thompson, JW; Kaddurah-Daouk, R; Ginsburg, GS; Ortel, TL; Voora, D
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