Association of meibomian gland architecture and body mass index in a pediatric population.
PURPOSE: To determine if meibomian gland architecture in a pediatric population is impacted by body mass index (BMI). METHODS: Prospective evaluation of 175 eyes of 175 pediatric patients from two clinics. Demographic and clinical information were reviewed. Symptoms of dry eye were assessed with the Standard Patient Evaluation of Eye Dryness (SPEED) questionnaire. Meibography was performed and grading of images was performed by a masked rater using a previously validated 5-point meiboscale (0-4) for gland atrophy and a 3-point score (0-2) for gland tortuosity. RESULTS: 175 eyes of 175 participants aged 4-17 years (11.6 ± 3.7 years) were imaged. The mean meiboscore was 0.82 ± 0.94 (range 0-4) and the mean gland tortuosity score was 0.53 ± 0.70 (range 0-2). Ninety-six patients (56%) showed evidence of gland atrophy (meiboscore greater than 0) and the majority of patients (n=50, 29%) had a gland tortuosity score of 1. The mean BMI was 20.5 ± 4.86 kg/m2 with 39.4% of patients (n = 69) above the 85th percentile. BMI percentile was not found to be a significant predictor of a meiboscore greater than 0 (odds ratio (OR) 1.004 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.99-1.10, p = 0.41). However, BMI percentile was found to be a significant predictor of gland tortuosity score (OR 1.01 95% CI (1.00-1.02), p = 0.02). Patients with BMI percentiles between 41 and 60 were 3.79 times more likely to have a gland tortuosity score of greater than 0 than patients with BMI percentiles between 0 and 20 (OR 3.789 CI (1.17-12.24)). No significant associations were found between age, race, or sex and meiboscore or tortuosity. There was a trend towards reduction in lipid layer thickness with increasing BMI percentile (p = 0.028, r2 = 0.04). CONCLUSION: In this pediatric population, there was an association between meibomian gland tortuosity and higher percentiles of BMI. Future studies are needed to elucidate the pathogenesis of meibomian gland tortuosity and atrophy in pediatric patients.
Gupta, PK; Venkateswaran, N; Heinke, J; Stinnett, SS
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