Assessing instrumental activities of daily living (iADL) with a game-based assessment for individuals with schizophrenia.
BACKGROUND: The Virtual Reality Functional Capacity Assessment Tool (VRFCAT) is an "applied" game-based assessment that uses a multi-level functional task to assess instrumental activities of daily living (iADL). This study examines the feasibility, convergent validity, and predictive ability of the VRFCAT in a sample of inpatients with chronic schizophrenia. METHODS: Inpatients with a DSM-5 diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, completed the VRFCAT prior to discharge. The UPSA-B, SLOF, and PSP were administered, both at baseline and after four-weeks in the community. VRFCAT performance scores were compared to published data from the VRFCAT validation study. RESULTS: All 62 participants completed the VRFCAT. Compared to the performance of stable outpatients, participants performed 1.50 SDs below the VRFCAT mean adjusted total time (ATT) (Validation study: Mean T Score = 32.5, SD = 16.59) with more errors. The VRFCAT ATT T-score was significantly correlated with baseline UPSA-B total score (p = 0.005) and PSP Global score (p = 0.010). 34 participants completed the follow-up period (55%), and 28 were lost to follow-up. There were no statistically significant differences in VRFCAT scores between these two groups (all p > 0.29). The VRFCAT composite score at baseline was significantly associated with the UPSA-B total score (p = 0.010) and the PSP total score (p = 0.008) at four-weeks, as was the PSP Socially Useful Activities subscale score (p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: The VRFCAT is a valid measure of iADLs in inpatients with chronic schizophrenia. The VRFCAT predicted instrumental functioning four-weeks post-discharge. Future studies should examine other moderators of measures of functional capacity pre-discharge, predicting function later in the community.
Lindenmayer, J-P; Goldring, A; Borne, S; Khan, A; Keefe, RSE; Insel, BJ; Thanju, A; Ljuri, I; Foreman, B
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