# Non-Hermitian random matrices with a variance profile (II): properties and examples

Journal Article

For each $n$, let $A_n=(\sigma_{ij})$ be an $n\times n$ deterministic matrix and let $X_n=(X_{ij})$ be an $n\times n$ random matrix with i.i.d. centered entries of unit variance. In the companion article Cook et al., we considered the empirical spectral distribution $\mu_n^Y$ of the rescaled entry-wise product \[ Y_n = \frac 1{\sqrt{n}} A_n\odot X_n = \left(\frac1{\sqrt{n}} \sigma_{ij}X_{ij}\right) \] and provided a deterministic sequence of probability measures $\mu_n$ such that the difference $\mu^Y_n - \mu_n$ converges weakly in probability to the zero measure. A key feature in Cook et al. was to allow some of the entries $\sigma_{ij}$ to vanish, provided that the standard deviation profiles $A_n$ satisfy a certain quantitative irreducibility property. In the present article, we provide more information on the sequence $(\mu_n)$, described by a family of Master Equations. We consider these equations in important special cases such as separable variance profiles $\sigma^2_{ij}=d_i \widetilde d_j$ and sampled variance profiles $\sigma^2_{ij} = \sigma^2\left(\frac in, \frac jn \right)$ where $(x,y)\mapsto \sigma^2(x,y)$ is a given function on $[0,1]^2$. Associate examples are provided where $\mu_n^Y$ converges to a genuine limit. We study $\mu_n$'s behavior at zero and provide examples where $\mu_n$'s density is bounded, blows up, or vanishes while an atom appears. As a consequence, we identify the profiles that yield the circular law. Finally, building upon recent results from Alt et al., we prove that except maybe in zero, $\mu_n$ admits a positive density on the centered disc of radius $\sqrt{\rho(V_n)}$, where $V_n=(\frac 1n \sigma_{ij}^2)$ and $\rho(V_n)$ is its spectral radius.

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### Cited Authors

- Cook, NA; Hachem, W; Najim, J; Renfrew, D