Chemical denervation with botulinum neurotoxin a improves the surgical manipulation of the muscle-tendon unit: an experimental study in an animal model.
PURPOSE: The chemical denervation that results from botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT-A) causes a temporary, reversible paresis that can result in easier surgical manipulation of the muscle-tendon unit in the context of tendon rupture and repair. The purpose of the study was to determine whether BoNT-A injections can be used to temporarily and reversibly modulate active and passive skeletal muscle properties. METHODS: Male CD1 mice weighing 40-50 g were divided into a 1-week postinjection group (n = 13: n = 5 saline and n = 8 BoNT-A) and a 2-week postinjection group (n = 17: n = 7 saline and n = 10 BoNT-A). The animals had in vivo muscle force testing and in vivo biomechanical evaluation. RESULTS: There was a substantial decline in the maximal single twitch amplitude (p < .05) and tetanic amplitude (p < .05) at one week and at 2 weeks after BoNT-A injection, when compared to saline-injected controls. BoNT-A injection significantly reduced the peak passive properties of the muscle-tendon unit as a function of displacement at one week (p < .05). Specifically, the stiffness of the BoNT-A injected muscle-tendon unit was 0.417 N/mm compared to the control saline injected group, which was 0.634 N/mm, a 35% reduction in stiffness (p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Presurgical treatment with BoNT-A might improve the surgical manipulation of the muscle-tendon unit, thus improving surgical outcomes. The results implicate neural tone as a substantial contributor to the passive repair tension of the muscle-tendon unit. The modulation of neural tone through temporary, reversible paresis is a novel approach that might improve intraoperative and postoperative passive muscle properties, allowing for progressive rehabilitation while protecting the surgical repair site.
Mannava, S; Callahan, MF; Trach, SM; Wiggins, WF; Smith, BP; Koman, LA; Smith, TL; Tuohy, CJ
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