Engineering antibody-based molecules for HIV treatment and cure.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immunotherapy strategies alternative to current antiretroviral therapies will need to address viral diversity while increasing the immune system's ability to efficiently target the latent virus reservoir. Antibody-based molecules can be designed based on broadly neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies that target free virions and infected cells. These multispecific molecules, either by IgG-like or non-IgG-like in structure, aim to target several independent HIV-1 epitopes and/or engage effector cells to eliminate the replicating virus and infected cells. This detailed review is intended to stimulate discussion on future requirements for novel immunotherapeutic molecules. RECENT FINDINGS: Bispecific and trispecific antibodies are engineered as a single molecules to target two or more independent epitopes on the HIV-1 envelope (Env). These antibody-based molecules have increased avidity for Env, leading to improved neutralization potency and breadth compared with single parental antibodies. Furthermore, bispecific and trispecific antibodies that engage cellular receptors with one arm of the molecule help concentrate inhibitory molecules to the sites of potential infection and facilitate engagement of immune effector cells and Env-expressing target cells for their elimination. SUMMARY: Recently engineered antibody-based molecules of different sizes and structures show promise in vitro or in vivo and are encouraging candidates for HIV treatment.
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