Murine Glucocorticoid Receptors Orchestrate B Cell Migration Selectively between Bone Marrow and Blood.
Glucocorticoids promote CXCR4 expression by T cells, monocytes, macrophages, and eosinophils, but it is not known if glucocorticoids regulate CXCR4 in B cells. Considering the important contributions of CXCR4 to B cell development and function, we investigated the glucocorticoid/CXCR4 axis in mice. We demonstrate that glucocorticoids upregulate CXCR4 mRNA and protein in mouse B cells. Using a novel strain of mice lacking glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) specifically in B cells, we show that reduced CXCR4 expression associated with GR deficiency results in impaired homing of mature B cells to bone marrow, whereas migration to other lymphoid tissues is independent of B cell GRs. The exchange of mature B cells between blood and bone marrow is sensitive to small, physiologic changes in glucocorticoid activity, as evidenced by the lack of circadian rhythmicity in GR-deficient B cell counts normally associated with diurnal patterns of glucocorticoid secretion. B cellGRKO mice mounted normal humoral responses to immunizations with T-dependent and T-independent (Type 1) Ags, but Ab responses to a multivalent T-independent (Type 2) Ag were impaired, a surprise finding considering the immunosuppressive properties commonly attributed to glucocorticoids. We propose that endogenous glucocorticoids regulate a dynamic mode of B cell migration specialized for rapid exchange between bone marrow and blood, perhaps as a means to optimize humoral immunity during diurnal periods of activity.
Cain, DW; Bortner, CD; Diaz-Jimenez, D; Petrillo, MG; Gruver-Yates, A; Cidlowski, JA
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