Sex and gender: modifiers of health, disease, and medicine.

Journal Article (Journal Article;Review)

Clinicians can encounter sex and gender disparities in diagnostic and therapeutic responses. These disparities are noted in epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, disease progression, and response to treatment. This Review discusses the fundamental influences of sex and gender as modifiers of the major causes of death and morbidity. We articulate how the genetic, epigenetic, and hormonal influences of biological sex influence physiology and disease, and how the social constructs of gender affect the behaviour of the community, clinicians, and patients in the health-care system and interact with pathobiology. We aim to guide clinicians and researchers to consider sex and gender in their approach to diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases as a necessary and fundamental step towards precision medicine, which will benefit men's and women's health.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Mauvais-Jarvis, F; Bairey Merz, N; Barnes, PJ; Brinton, RD; Carrero, J-J; DeMeo, DL; De Vries, GJ; Epperson, CN; Govindan, R; Klein, SL; Lonardo, A; Maki, PM; McCullough, LD; Regitz-Zagrosek, V; Regensteiner, JG; Rubin, JB; Sandberg, K; Suzuki, A

Published Date

  • August 22, 2020

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 396 / 10250

Start / End Page

  • 565 - 582

PubMed ID

  • 32828189

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC7440877

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1474-547X

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31561-0


  • eng

Conference Location

  • England