Impact of anxiety and depression on progression to glaucoma among glaucoma suspects.

Journal Article (Multicenter Study;Journal Article)


To assess the impact of anxiety and depression in the risk of converting to glaucoma in a cohort of glaucoma suspects followed over time.


The study included a retrospective cohort of subjects with diagnosis of glaucoma suspect at baseline, extracted from the Duke Glaucoma Registry. The presence of anxiety and depression was defined based on electronic health records billing codes, medical history and problem list. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to obtain HRs for the risk of converting to glaucoma over time. Multivariable models were adjusted for age, gender, race, intraocular pressure measurements over time and disease severity at baseline.


A total of 3259 glaucoma suspects followed for an average of 3.60 (2.05) years were included in our cohort, of which 911 (28%) were diagnosed with glaucoma during follow-up. Prevalence of anxiety and depression were 32% and 33%, respectively. Diagnoses of anxiety, or concomitant anxiety and depression were significantly associated with risk of converting to glaucoma over time, with adjusted HRs (95% CI) of 1.16 (1.01, 1.33) and 1.27 (1.07, 1.50), respectively.


A history of anxiety or both anxiety and depression in glaucoma suspects was associated with developing glaucoma during follow-up.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Berchuck, S; Jammal, A; Mukherjee, S; Somers, T; Medeiros, FA

Published Date

  • September 2021

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 105 / 9

Start / End Page

  • 1244 - 1249

PubMed ID

  • 32862132

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1468-2079

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0007-1161

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2020-316617


  • eng