Sensor-Array Optimization Based on Time-Series Data Analytics for Sanitation-Related Malodor Detection.
There is an unmet need for a low-cost instrumented technology for detecting sanitation-related malodor as an alert for maintenance around shared toilets and emerging technologies for onsite waste treatment. In this article, our approach to an electronic nose for sanitation-related malodor is based on the use of electrochemical gas sensors, and machine-learning techniques for sensor selection and odor classification. We screened 10 sensors from different vendors with specific target gases and recorded their response to malodor from fecal specimens and urine specimens, and confounding good odors such as popcorn. The analysis of 180 odor exposures data by two feature-selection methods based on mutual information indicates that, for malodor detection, the decision tree (DT) classifier with seven features from four sensors provides 88.0% balanced accuracy and 85.1% macro F1 score. However, the k-nearest-neighbors (KNN) classifier with only three features (from two sensors) obtains 83.3% balanced accuracy and 81.3% macro F1 score. For classification of urine against feces malodor, a balanced accuracy of 94.0% and a macro F1 score of 92.9% are achieved using only four features from three sensors and a logistic regression (LR) classifier.
Zhou, J; Welling, CM; Vasquez, MM; Grego, S; Chakrabarty, K
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