Transfusion-related acute lung injury: from bedside to bench and back.

Journal Article (Journal Article;Review)

Over the past 60 years, the transfusion medicine community has attained significant knowledge regarding transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) through the bedside to bench and back to the bedside model. First, at the bedside, TRALI causes hypoxia and noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, typically within 6 hours of transfusion. Second, bedside studies showed a higher incidence in plasma and platelet products than in red blood cell products (the fatal TRALI incidence for plasma is 1:2-300 000 products; platelet, 1:3-400 000; red blood cells, 1:25 002 000), as well as an association with donor leukocyte antibodies (∼ 80% of cases). Third, at the bench, antibody-dependent and antibody-independent mechanisms have been described, requiring neutrophil and pulmonary endothelial cell activation. Antibodies, as well as alternate substances in blood products, result in neutrophil activation, which, in a susceptible patient, result in TRALI (2-hit hypothesis). Fourth, back to the bedside, policy changes based on results of these studies, such as minimizing use of plasma and platelet products from donors with leukocyte antibodies, have decreased the incidence of TRALI. Thus, steps to mitigate TRALI are in place, but a complete mechanistic understanding of the pathogenesis of TRALI and of which patients are at highest risk remains to be elucidated.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Shaz, BH; Stowell, SR; Hillyer, CD

Published Date

  • February 3, 2011

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 117 / 5

Start / End Page

  • 1463 - 1471

PubMed ID

  • 20944069

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1528-0020

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1182/blood-2010-04-278135


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States