Parenting profiles of academic and racial socialization: Associations with academic engagement and academic self-beliefs of African American adolescents.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

In addition to being involved and encouraging their youth academically, many African American caregivers also employ socialization practices that prepare their adolescents for entering into a school system where they will be an ethnic minority or be taught by predominantly non-minority educators. The purpose of the current investigation was to fill existing gaps in the literature by examining two dimensions of parental socialization practices: academic socialization (parent school involvement and academic encouragement) and racial socialization (cultural pride, preparation for bias, and egalitarian messages). Additionally, this study examined how the identified profiles are associated with African American adolescents' academic outcomes (academic engagement and academic self-beliefs). A latent profile analysis was utilized to analyze data on 140 African American adolescent participants (M = 12.4; SD = 1.13; 56% female). Profiles that were identified included (a) academic socializers, (b) low race salient socializers, (c) preparation for bias socializers, (d) unengaged socializers, (e) multifaceted socializers, and (f) race salient socializers. Although there was no demographic (age, gender, SES) variation in profile membership, there were some differences in academic engagement and adolescents' academic-self beliefs. Findings highlight the importance of examining how academic and racial socialization work together and their association with adolescents' academic outcomes. Implications are discussed for school psychologists and educators.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Metzger, IW; Cooper, SM; Griffin, CB; Golden, AR; Opara, I; Ritchwood, TD

Published Date

  • October 2020

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 82 /

Start / End Page

  • 36 - 48

PubMed ID

  • 32988462

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC8219402

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1873-3506

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1016/j.jsp.2020.07.001


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States