Cutting edge: Cytosolic bacterial DNA activates the inflammasome via Aim2.
Pathogens are detected by pattern recognition receptors that, upon activation, orchestrate an appropriate immune response. The TLRs and the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs) are prototypic pattern recognition receptors that detect extracellular and cytosolic pathogens, respectively. Listeria monocytogenes has both extracellular and cytosolic phases and is detected in the cytosol by members of the NLR family. These include two NLR members, NLRC4 and NLRP3, that, upon detection of cytosolic L. monocytogenes, induce the assembly of the inflammasome. Inflammasomes serve as platforms for the activation of the protease caspase 1, which mediates the processing and secretion of pro-IL-1beta and pro-IL-18. We previously provided evidence that L. monocytogenes is also detected by a third inflammasome. We now use biochemical and genetic approaches to demonstrate that the third detector senses bacterial DNA and identify it as Aim2, a receptor that has previously been shown to detect viral DNA.
Warren, SE; Armstrong, A; Hamilton, MK; Mao, DP; Leaf, IA; Miao, EA; Aderem, A
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