Impact of Location of Acquisition of Gram-Positive Bloodstream Infections on Clinical Outcomes Among Patients Admitted to Community Hospitals.
Purpose:We investigated the association between location of acquisition (LOA) of gram-positive (GP) bloodstream infections (BSI) in community hospitals and clinical outcomes. Methods:We performed a multicenter cohort study of adult inpatients with GP BSI in nine community hospitals from 2003 to 2006. LOA was defined by CDC criteria: 1) community-acquired (CA), 2) healthcare-associated (HCA) such as BSI <48 hours after admission plus hospitalization, surgery, dialysis, invasive device, or residence in a long-term care facility in the prior 12 months, and 3) hospital-acquired (HA) as BSI ≥48 hours after hospital admission. Results:A total of 750 patients were included. Patients with HCA or HA GP BSI were significantly more likely to require assistance with ≥1 activity of daily living, have higher Charlson scores, and die during the hospitalization. Patients with HCA or HA GP BSI were more likely to have BSI due to a multidrug-resistant GP organism, but less likely to receive appropriate antibiotics within 24 hours of BSI presentation. Those with CA BSI were more likely to have a streptococcal BSI and to be discharged home following hospitalization. HA BSI was a risk factor for requiring a procedure for BSI and receiving inappropriate antibiotics within 24 hours of BSI. Both HA and HCA GP BSI were risk factors for in-hospital mortality. Conclusion:LOA for patients with GP BSI in community hospitals was significantly associated with differences in clinical outcomes including receiving inappropriate antibiotics and in-hospital mortality. Distinguishing LOA in a patient presenting with suspected GP BSI is a critical assessment that should influence empiric treatment patterns.
Messina, JA; Moehring, RW; Schmader, KE; Anderson, DJ
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