Clinical Associations of Vascular Stiffness, Microvascular Dysfunction, and Prevalent Cardiovascular Disease in a Black Cohort: The Jackson Heart Study.
Background Measures of vascular dysfunction are related to adverse cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes in non-Hispanic, White populations; however, data from Black individuals are limited. We aimed to investigate the associations between novel hemodynamic measures and prevalent CVD in a sample of Black individuals. Methods and Results Among older Black participants of the Jackson Heart Study, we assessed noninvasive vascular hemodynamic measures using arterial tonometry and Doppler ultrasound. We assessed 5 measures of aortic stiffness and wave reflection (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, pulse wave velocity ratio, forward pressure wave amplitude, central pulse pressure, and augmentation index), and 2 measures of microvascular function (baseline and hyperemic brachial flow velocity). Using multivariable logistic regression models, we examined the relations between vascular hemodynamic measures and prevalent CVD. In models adjusted for traditional CVD risk factors, higher carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (odds ratio [OR],1.25; 95% CI, 1.01-1.55; P=0.04), lower augmentation index (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.70-0.99; P=0.05), and lower hyperemic brachial flow velocity (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.65-0.90; P=0.001) were associated with higher odds of CVD. After further adjustment for hypertension treatment, lower augmentation index (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.70-0.99; P=0.04) and hyperemic brachial flow velocity (OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.67-0.94; P=0.006), but not carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.99-1.051; P=0.06), were associated with higher odds of CVD. Conclusions In a sample of older Black individuals, more severe microvascular damage and aortic stiffness were associated with prevalent CVD. Further research on hemodynamic mechanisms that contribute to cardiovascular risk among older Black individuals is merited.
Cooper, LL; Musani, SK; Moore, JA; Clarke, VA; Yano, Y; Cobbs, K; Tsao, CW; Butler, J; Hall, ME; Hamburg, NM; Benjamin, EJ; Vasan, RS; Mitchell, GF; Fox, ER
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