Topology, Distance, and Orbital Symmetry Effects on Electronic Spin-Spin Couplings in Rigid Molecular Systems: Implications for Long-Distance Spin-Spin Interactions.
Understanding factors that underpin the signs and magnitudes of electron spin-spin couplings in biradicaloids, especially those that are integrated into highly delocalized electronic structures, promises to inform the design of molecular spintronic systems. Using steady-state and variable temperature electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, we examine spin dynamics in symmetric, strongly π-conjugated bis[(porphinato)copper] (bis[PCu]) systems and probe the roles played by atom-specific macrocycle spin density, porphyrin-to-porphyrin linkage topology, and orbital symmetry on the magnitudes of electronic spin-spin couplings over substantial Cu-Cu distances. These studies examine the following: (i) meso-to-meso-linked bis[PCu] systems having oligoyne spacers, (ii) meso-to-meso-bridged bis[PCu] arrays in which the PCu centers are separated by a single ethynyl unit or multiple 5,15-diethynyl(porphinato)zinc(II) units, and (iii) the corresponding β-to-β-bridged bis[PCu] structures. EPR data show that, for β-to-β-bridged systems and meso-to-meso-linked bis[PCu] structures having oligoyne spacers, a through σ-bond coupling mechanism controls the average exchange interaction (Javg). In contrast, PCu centers separated by a single ethynyl or multiple 5,15-diethynyl(porphinato)zinc(II) units display a phenomenological decay of ln[Javg] versus Cu-Cu σ-bond separation number of ∼0.115 per bond, half as large as for these other compositions, congruent with the importance of π-mediated spin-spin coupling. These disparities derive from effects that trace their origin to the nature of the macrocycle-macrocycle linkage topology and the relative energy of the Cu dx2-y2 singly occupied molecular orbital within the frontier orbital manifold of these electronically delocalized structures. This work provides insight into approaches to tune the extent of spin exchange interactions and distance-dependent electronic spin-spin coupling magnitudes in rigid, highly conjugated biradicaloids.
Wang, R; Ko, C-H; Brugh, AM; Bai, Y; Forbes, MDE; Therien, MJ
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