Effectiveness of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against radiographic pneumonia among children in rural Bangladesh: A case-control study.
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) effectiveness against radiographic pneumonia in South Asia is unknown. Bangladesh introduced PCV10 in 2015 using a three dose primary series (3 + 0). We sought to measure PCV10 effectiveness for two or more vaccine doses on radiographic pneumonia among vaccine-eligible children in rural Bangladesh. METHODS: We conducted a matched case-control study over two years from 2015 to 2017 using clinic and community controls in three subdistricts of Sylhet, Bangladesh. Cases were vaccine eligible 3-35 month olds at Upazila Health Complex outpatient clinics with World Health Organization-defined radiographic primary endpoint pneumonia (radiographic pneumonia). Clinic controls were matched to cases within a one week time window by age, sex, and clinic and had an illness unlikely to be Streptococcus pneumoniae; community controls were healthy and similarly matched within a one week time window by age and sex, and distance from the clinic. We estimated adjusted vaccine effectiveness (aVE) using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: We matched 1262 cases with 2707 clinic and 2461 community controls. Overall, aVE using clinic controls was 21.4% (95% confidence interval, -0.2%, 38.4%) for ≥2 PCV10 doses and among 3-11 month olds was 47.3% (10.5%, 69.0%) for three doses. aVE increased with higher numbers of doses in clinic control sets (p = 0.007). In contrast, aVE using community controls was 7.6% (95% confidence interval, -22.2%, 30.0%) for ≥2 doses. We found vaccine introduction in the study area faster and less variable than expected with 75% coverage on average, which reduced power. Information bias may also have affected community controls. CONCLUSIONS: Clinic control analyses show PCV10 prevented radiographic pneumonia in Bangladesh, especially among younger children receiving three doses. While both analyses were underpowered, community control enrollment - compared to clinic controls - was more difficult in a complex, pluralistic healthcare system. Future studies in comparable settings may consider alternative study designs.
McCollum, ED; Ahmed, S; Roy, AD; Chowdhury, NH; Schuh, HB; Rizvi, SJR; Hanif, AAM; Khan, AM; Mahmud, A; Pervaiz, F; Harrison, M; Reller, ME; Simmons, N; Quaiyum, A; Begum, N; Santosham, M; Checkley, W; Moulton, LH; Baqui, AH; Projahnmo Study Group in Bangladesh,
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