Structural and Functional Brain Abnormalities in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease Revealed by Multimodal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Fusion: Association With Cognitive Function.
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive impairment remains a prevalent comorbidity that impacts daily functioning and increases morbidity. While HIV infection is known to cause widespread disruptions in the brain, different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modalities have not been effectively integrated. In this study, we applied 3-way supervised fusion to investigate how structural and functional coalterations affect cognitive function. METHODS: Participants (59 people living with HIV and 58 without HIV) completed comprehensive neuropsychological testing and multimodal MRI scanning to acquire high-resolution anatomical, diffusion-weighted, and resting-state functional images. Preprocessed data were reduced using voxel-based morphometry, probabilistic tractography, and regional homogeneity, respectively. We applied multimodal canonical correlation analysis with reference plus joint independent component analysis using global cognitive functioning as the reference. RESULTS: Compared with controls, participants living with HIV had lower global cognitive functioning. One joint component was both group discriminating and correlated with cognitive function. This component included the following covarying regions: fractional anisotropy in the corpus callosum, short and long association fiber tracts, and corticopontine fibers; gray matter volume in the thalamus, prefrontal cortex, precuneus, posterior parietal regions, and occipital lobe; and functional connectivity in frontoparietal and visual processing regions. Component loadings for fractional anisotropy also correlated with immunosuppression. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that coalterations in brain structure and function can distinguish people with and without HIV and may drive cognitive impairment. As MRI becomes more commonplace in HIV care, multimodal fusion may provide neural biomarkers to support diagnosis and treatment of cognitive impairment.
Sui, J; Li, X; Bell, RP; Towe, SL; Gadde, S; Chen, N-K; Meade, CS
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