Children with Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia in the United States: Data from the Cascade Screening for Awareness and Detection-FH Registry.
OBJECTIVE: To describe enrollment characteristics of youth in the Cascade Screening for Awareness and Detection of FH Registry. STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional analysis of 493 participants aged <18 years with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia recruited from US lipid clinics (n = 20) between April 1, 2014, and January 12, 2018. At enrollment, some were new patients and some were already in care. Clinical characteristics are described, including lipid levels and lipid-lowering treatments. RESULTS: Mean age at diagnosis was 9.4 (4.0) years; 47% female, 68% white and 12% Hispanic. Average (SD) highest Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was 238 (61) mg/dL before treatment. Lipid-lowering therapy was used by 64% of participants; 56% were treated with statin. LDL-C declined 84 mg/dL (33%) among those treated with lipid-lowering therapy; statins produced the greatest decline, 100 mg/dL (39% reduction). At enrollment, 39% had reached an LDL-C goal, either <130 mg/dL or ≥50% decrease from pre-treatment; 20% of those on lipid-lowering therapy reached both goals. CONCLUSIONS: Among youth enrolled in the Cascade Screening for Awareness and Detection of FH Registry, diagnosis occurred relatively late, only 77% of children eligible for lipid-lowering therapy were receiving treatment, and only 39% of those treated met their LDL-C goal. Opportunities exist for earlier diagnosis, broader use of lipid-lowering therapy, and greater reduction of LDL-C levels.
de Ferranti, SD; Shrader, P; Linton, MF; Knowles, JW; Hudgins, LC; Benuck, I; Kindt, I; O'Brien, EC; Peterson, AL; Ahmad, ZS; Clauss, S; Duell, PB; Shapiro, MD; Wilemon, K; Gidding, SS; Neal, W
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