Trimodal therapy approaches for localized rectal cancer
Excellent long-term outcomes and manageable toxicity are being achieved with contemporary treatment strategies for rectal cancer. Short-course radiotherapy is now an acceptable standard. Total neoadjuvant therapy (TNT), which incorporates induction or consolidation chemotherapy, has improved the delivery of treatment regiments. TNT is now a standard of care, although the sequencing of radiation and chemotherapy in TNT, appropriate amount of chemotherapy in TNT, and addition of irinotecan to the regimen are still being debated. Nonoperative management of rectal cancer appears to be a safe option for select patients, but it is not yet an NCCN recommendation. In addition, the omission of radiation is being evaluated as a treatment option in some cases.
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