Somatic Mutations in LRRK2 Identify a Subset of Invasive Mammary Carcinomas Associated with High Mutation Burden.
Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are the most common cause of familial Parkinson disease. Although LRRK2-related Parkinson disease patients have a heightened risk of certain nonskin cancers, including breast cancer, it is unknown whether LRRK2 somatic mutations occur and are associated with breast cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of LRRK2 somatic mutations in breast cancer and the clinicopathologic features associated with LRRK2-mutated tumors. Using The Cancer Genome Atlas Breast Cancer Project, somatic LRRK2 DNA sequence information was obtained for 93 cases, of which 17 cases (18%) with 18 mutations were identified. LRRK2-mutated mammary carcinomas are enriched with stop-gain, truncating mutations predicted to result in loss of function; missense mutations frequently targeted the GTPase and kinase domains. Tumors displayed predominantly high-grade morphology with abundant granular eosinophilic cytoplasm, resembling mitochondria-rich apocrine-like carcinomas. Exploration of the genomic landscape of LRRK2-mutated carcinomas yielded frequent TP53 deactivation and a remarkably high tumor mutation burden. More important, breast cancers with LRRK2 mutations are associated with reduced patient survival compared with The Cancer Genome Atlas Breast Cancer Project cohort. These findings, for the first time, show that somatic LRRK2 mutations occur frequently in breast cancer, and the high mutation burden seen in this subset of tumors suggests that LRRK2 mutations may herald benefit from immune checkpoint inhibition.
Parrilla Castellar, ER; Plichta, JK; Davis, R; Gonzalez-Hunt, C; Sanders, LH
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