Changing epidemiology of nephrotic syndrome in Nigerian children: A cross-sectional study.
BACKGROUND: Recent reports from small studies in West Africa suggest that Black children may have high rate of steroid sensitivity nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) contrary to long held knowledge. Herein, we determined the proportion of children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) who achieved complete remission with steroid therapy and identified factors associated with complete remission. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 241 children with INS in two centres in Lagos from 2010 to 2019. We extracted demographic data, clinical features, laboratory values at the time of diagnosis, and receipt and response to steroids and other immunosuppressants. RESULTS: The median (interquartile range) age at diagnosis of INS was 5.1 (3.0-8.7) years and boys were 60.2% of the study population. Children with SSNS made up 85.9% (n = 207) of the study cohort. Among those aged 0-5 years, 92.6%were SSNS compared with 69.2% in those aged 11-17 years at the time of diagnosis. In addition, the proportion of children with SSNS increased from 73.8% between year 2010 and 2012 to 88.4% afterwards. Also, children with SSNS had lower serum creatinine (0.44 vs 0.70; p<0.001) and higher estimated glomerular filtration rate (101 vs 74.3 ml/min/1.73 m2; p = 0.008) at the time of diagnosis than those with steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS). CONCLUSION: Among Black children in Lagos, the proportion with SSNS is comparable to proportions described in children of Asian and European descent. Furthermore, children with SSNS had lower serum creatinine and higher glomerular filtration rate than those with SRNS.
Esezobor, CI; Solarin, AU; Gbadegesin, R
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