Development of an Item Bank to Measure Medication Adherence: Systematic Review (Preprint)

Journal Article


Medication adherence is important in managing the progression of chronic diseases. A promising approach to reduce cognitive burden when measuring medication adherence lies in the use of computerā€adaptive tests (CATs) or in the development of shorter patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). However, the lack of an item bank currently hampers this progress.


We aim to develop an item bank to measure general medication adherence.


Using the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis (PRISMA), articles published before October 2019 were retrieved from PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. Items from existing PROMs were classified and selected (“binned” and “winnowed”) according to standards published by the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Cooperative Group.


A total of 126 unique PROMs were identified from 213 studies in 48 countries. Items from the literature review (47 PROMs with 579 items for which permission has been obtained) underwent binning and winnowing. This resulted in 421 candidate items (77 extent of adherence and 344 reasons for adherence).


We developed an item bank for measuring general medication adherence using items from validated PROMs. This will allow researchers to create new PROMs from selected items and provide the foundation to develop CATs.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Kwan, YH; Oo, LJY; Loh, DHF; Phang, JK; Weng, SD; Blalock, DV; Chew, EH; Yap, KZ; Tan, CYK; Yoon, S; Fong, W; Østbye, T; Low, LL; Bosworth, HB; Thumboo, J

Published Date

  • April 7, 2020

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.2196/preprints.19089