Emerging Roles for Phase Separation in Plants.
The plant cell internal environment is a dynamic, intricate landscape composed of many intracellular compartments. Cells organize some cellular components through formation of biomolecular condensates-non-stoichiometric assemblies of protein and/or nucleic acids. In many cases, phase separation appears to either underly or contribute to the formation of biomolecular condensates. Many canonical membraneless compartments within animal cells form in a manner that is at least consistent with phase separation, including nucleoli, stress granules, Cajal bodies, and numerous additional bodies, regulated by developmental and environmental stimuli. In this Review, we examine the emerging roles for phase separation in plants. Further, drawing on studies carried out in other organisms, we identify cellular phenomenon in plants that might also arise via phase separation. We propose that plants make use of phase separation to a much greater extent than has been previously appreciated, implicating phase separation as an evolutionarily ancient mechanism for cellular organization.
Emenecker, RJ; Holehouse, AS; Strader, LC
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