From Light to Sound: Photoacoustic and Ultrasound Imaging in Fundamental Research of Alzheimer's Disease.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) causes severe cognitive dysfunction and has long been studied for the underlining physiological and pathological mechanisms. Several biomedical imaging modalities have been applied, including MRI, PET, and high-resolution optical microscopy, for research purposes. However, there is still a strong need for imaging tools that can provide high spatiotemporal resolutions with relatively deep penetration to enhance our understanding of AD pathology and monitor treatment progress in fundamental research. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging and ultrasound (US) imaging can potentially address these unmet needs in AD research. PA imaging provides functional information with endogenous and/or exogenous contrast, while US imaging provides structural information. Recent studies have demonstrated the ability to monitor physiological parameters in small-animal brains with PA and US imaging as well as the feasibility of using US imaging as a therapeutic tool for AD. This concise review aims to introduce recent advances in AD research using PA and US imaging, provide the fundamentals, and discuss the potentials and challenges for future advances.
Tang, Y; Qian, X; Lee, DJ; Zhou, Q; Yao, J
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