Infection in kidney transplant recipients
In organ transplant recipients, impaired inflammatory responses suppress the clinical and radiologic findings of infection. The possible etiologies of infection are diverse, ranging from common bacterial and viral pathogens that affect the entire community to opportunistic pathogens that cause invasive disease only in immunocompromised hosts. Antimicrobial therapies required to treat established infection are often complex, with accompanying risks for drug toxicities and drug interactions with the immunosuppressive agents used to maintain graft function. Rapid and specific diagnosis is essential for successful therapy. The risk of serious infections in the organ transplant patient is largely determined by the interaction between two factors: the patient’s epidemiologic exposures and the patient’s net state of immunosuppression. The epidemiology of infection includes environmental exposures and nosocomial infections, organisms derived from donor tissues, and latent infections from the recipient activated with immunosuppression. The net state of immune suppression is a conceptual framework that measures those factors contributing to risk for infection: the dose, duration, and temporal sequence of immunosuppressive drugs; the presence of foreign bodies or injuries to mucocutaneous barriers; neutropenia; metabolic abnormalities including diabetes; devitalized tissues, hematomas, or effusions postsurgery; and infection with immunomodulating viruses. Multiple factors are present in each host. A timeline exists to aid in the development of a differential diagnosis for infection. The timeline for each patient is altered by changes in prophylaxis and immunosuppressive drugs. For common infections, new microbiologic assays, often nucleic acid based, are useful in the diagnosis and management of opportunistic infections.
Fishman, JA; Costa, SF; Alexander, BD
- Kidney Transplantation - Principles and Practice
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International Standard Book Number 13 (ISBN-13)
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