Thermal Activation of Peracetic Acid in Aquatic Solution: The Mechanism and Application to Degrade Sulfamethoxazole.
Chemical oxidation using peracetic acid (PAA) can be enhanced by activation with the formation of reactive species such as organic radicals (R-O•
) and HO•
. Thermal activation is an alternative way for PAA activation, which was first applied to degrade micropollutants in this study. PAA is easily decomposed by heat via both radical and nonradical pathways. Our experimental results suggest that a series of reactive species including R-O•
, and 1
can be produced through the thermal decomposition of PAA. Sulfamethoxazole (SMX), a typical sulfa drug, can be effectively removed by the thermoactivated PAA process under conditions of neutral pH. R-O•
has been shown to play a primary role in the degradation of SMX followed by direct PAA oxidation in the thermoactivated PAA process. Both higher temperature (60 °C) and higher PAA dose benefit SMX degradation, while coexisting H2
inhibits SMX degradation in the thermoactivated PAA process. With a variation of solution pH, conditions near a neutral value show the best performance of this process in SMX degradation. Based on the identified intermediates, transformation of SMX was proposed to undergo oxidation of the amine group and oxidative coupling reactions. This study definitively illustrates the PAA decomposition pathways at high temperature in aquatic solution and addresses the possibility of the thermoactivated PAA process for contaminant destruction, demonstrating this process to be a feasible advanced oxidation process.
Wang, J; Wan, Y; Ding, J; Wang, Z; Ma, J; Xie, P; Wiesner, MR
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