Perceived barriers and facilitators to chronic kidney disease care among patients in Singapore: a qualitative study.

Journal Article (Journal Article)


To outline the facilitators and barriers to patients' self-management of predialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD).




Three polyclinics in a public primary care institution in Singapore.


20 patients entered and completed the study. Inclusion criteria were: (1) English speaking, (2) aged 40 years and above, (3) identified by clinical coding as 'DM (diabetes mellitus) nephropathy-overt' and 'DM nephropathy-incipient', by their physicians in the polyclinic, with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (based on electronic health records) and (4) aware of their CKD illness. Exclusion criteria were: (1) receiving dialysis or had received a kidney transplant, (2) suffered from any visual, auditory or cognitive impairment which could hinder their ability to participate in the study or (3) pregnant.


We found that the major barriers to CKD management were a lack of knowledge and awareness of CKD, a passive attitude toward self-management and insufficient patient-physician communication. Major facilitators included patient trust and satisfaction with the physician and family support. Many patients reported that there was an overload of information and too little guidance on how to manage their condition, especially regarding dietary recommendations.


We identified several barriers and facilitators to the management of predialysis CKD among patients. A multi-pronged approach for raising CKD awareness is required: improving patient-physician communication, implementing CKD workshops and home-visits and disseminating accurate online information about CKD. Strategies should also focus on increasing patient engagement and optimising family support by involving family members in patients' care. Furthermore, clear dietary recommendations and patient-specific advice are needed to empower patients to manage their own condition.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Hwang, SJ; Tan, NC; Yoon, S; Ramakrishnan, C; Paulpandi, M; Gun, S; Lee, JY; Chang, ZY; Jafar, TH

Published Date

  • October 2020

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 10 / 10

Start / End Page

  • e041788 -

PubMed ID

  • 33067304

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC7569996

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 2044-6055

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 2044-6055

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-041788


  • eng