Lysophospholipids Contribute to Oxaliplatin-Induced Acute Peripheral Pain.
Oxaliplatin, a platinum-based chemotherapeutic drug, which is used as first-line treatment for some types of colorectal carcinoma, causes peripheral neuropathic pain in patients. In addition, an acute peripheral pain syndrome develop in almost 90% of patients immediately after oxaliplatin treatment, which is poorly understood mechanistically but correlates with incidence and severity of the later-occurring neuropathy. Here we investigated the effects of acute oxaliplatin treatment in a murine model, showing that male and female mice develop mechanical hypersensitivity 24 h after oxaliplatin treatment. Interestingly, we found that the levels of several lipids were significantly altered in nervous tissue during oxaliplatin-induced acute pain. Specifically, the linoleic acid metabolite 9,10-EpOME (epoxide of linoleic acid) as well as the lysophospholipids lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) 18:1 and LPC 16:0 were significantly increased 24 h after oxaliplatin treatment in sciatic nerve, DRGs, or spinal cord tissue as revealed by untargeted and targeted lipidomics. In contrast, inflammatory markers including cytokines and chemokines, ROS markers, and growth factors are unchanged in the respective nervous system tissues. Importantly, LPC 18:1 and LPC 16:0 can induce Ca2+ transients in primary sensory neurons, and we identify LPC 18:1 as a previously unknown endogenous activator of the ligand-gated calcium channels transient receptor potential V1 and M8 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 and transient receptor potential melastatin 8) in primary sensory neurons using both pharmacological inhibition and genetic knockout. Additionally, a peripheral LPC 18:1 injection was sufficient to induce mechanical hypersensitivity in naive mice. Hence, targeting signaling lipid pathways may ameliorate oxaliplatin-induced acute peripheral pain and the subsequent long-lasting neuropathy.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The first-line cytostatic drug oxaliplatin can cause acute peripheral pain and chronic neuropathic pain. The former is causally connected with the chronic neuropathic pain, but its mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we performed a broad unbiased analysis of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and ∼200 lipids in nervous system tissues 24 h after oxaliplatin treatment, which revealed a crucial role of lysophospholipids lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) 18:1, LPC 16:0, and 9,10-EpOME in oxaliplatin-induced acute pain. We demonstrate for the first time that LPC 18:1 contributes to the activation of the ion channels transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 and transient receptor potential melastatin 8 in sensory neurons and causes mechanical hypersensitivity after peripheral injection in vivo These findings suggest that the LPC-mediated lipid signaling is involved in oxaliplatin-induced acute peripheral pain.
Rimola, V; Hahnefeld, L; Zhao, J; Jiang, C; Angioni, C; Schreiber, Y; Osthues, T; Pierre, S; Geisslinger, G; Ji, R-R; Scholich, K; Sisignano, M
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