Benign or not benign? Deep phenotyping of liver Glycogen Storage Disease IX.
INTRODUCTION: Liver Glycogen Storage Disease Type IX (GSD IX) is one of the most common forms of GSD. It is caused by a deficiency in enzyme phosphorylase kinase (PhK), a complex, hetero-tetrameric enzyme comprised of four subunits - α, β, γ, and δ - each with tissue specific isoforms encoded by different genes. Until the recent availability of gene panels and exome sequencing, the diagnosis of liver GSD IX did not allow for differentiation of these subtypes. This study presents the first comprehensive literature review for liver GSD IX subtypes - GSD IX α2, β, and γ2. We aim to better characterize the natural history of liver GSD IX and further investigate if there are subtype-specific differences in clinical presentation. METHODS: A comprehensive literature review was performed with the help of a medical librarian at Duke University Medical Center to gather all published patients of liver GSD IX. Our refined search yielded 74 articles total. Available patient data were compiled into an excel spreadsheet. Data were analyzed via descriptive statistics. The number of patients with specific symptoms were individually summed and reported as a percentage of the total number of patients for which data were available or were averaged and reported as a mean numerical value. Published pathology reports were scored using the International Association of the Study of the Liver Scale. RESULTS: There were a total of 183 GSD IX α2 patients, 17 GSD IX β patients, and 30 GSD IX γ2 patients. Average age at diagnosis was 4 years for GSD IX α2 patients, 2.34 years for GSD IX β patients, and 1.81 years for GSD IX γ2 patients. Hepatomegaly was reported in 164/176 (93.2%) of GSD IX α2 patients, 16/17 (94.1%) of GSD IX β patients, and 30/30 (100%) of GSD IX γ2 patients. Fasting hypoglycemia was reported in 53/121 (43.8%) of GSD IX α2 patients, 8/16 (50%) of GSD IX β patients, and 18/19 (94.7%) of GSD IX γ2 patients. Liver biopsy pathology reports were available and interpreted for 46 GSD IX α2 patients, 3 GSD IX β patients, and 24 GSD IX γ2 patients. 22/46 (47.8%) GSD IX α2 patients, 1/3 (33.3%) GSD IX β patients, and 23/24 (95.8%) GSD IX γ2 patients with available pathology reports documented either some degree of fibrosis or cirrhosis. CONCLUSION: Our comprehensive review demonstrates quantitatively that the clinical presentation of GSD IX γ2 patients is more severe than that of GSD IX α2 or β patients. However, our study also shows the existence of a severe phenotype in GSD IX α2, evidenced by early onset liver pathology in conjunction with clinical symptoms. There is need for a more robust natural history study to better understand the variability in liver pathophysiology within liver GSD IX; in addition, further study of mutations and gene mapping could bring a better understanding of the relationship between genotype and clinical presentation.
Fernandes, SA; Cooper, GE; Gibson, RA; Kishnani, PS
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