Implementation of a Multimodal Analgesia Protocol Among Outpatient Neurosurgical Patients Undergoing Spine Surgery to Improve Patient Outcomes.

Journal Article (Journal Article)


This quality improvement project implemented an evidence-based multimodal analgesia protocol among patients undergoing outpatient spine surgery in an attempt to decrease postoperative opioid requirements, postoperative pain scores, and facility and postanesthesia care unit length of stay (LOS).


Two independent samples were compared with a preimplementation and postimplementation design. There were 37 patients in the preimplementation group and 36 patients in the postimplementation group.


Data were collected by a retrospective chart review of neurosurgical patients undergoing spine surgery and included postoperative opioid requirements, postoperative pain scores, facility and postanesthesia care unit LOS, and the number of protocol components implemented on each patient.


Intraoperative and postoperative by mouth opioid requirements were significantly decreased postimplementation. Postoperative opioid requirements decreased, and postimplementation pain scores were reduced across all time points. LOS did not significantly change.


This multimodal analgesia protocol significantly decreased opioid consumption among neurosurgical patients at this surgery center.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Tucker, EM; Thompson, JA; Muckler, VC

Published Date

  • February 2021

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 36 / 1

Start / End Page

  • 8 - 13

PubMed ID

  • 33153878

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1532-8473

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1089-9472

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1016/j.jopan.2020.05.010


  • eng