Long-term survival of patients with stage III colon cancer treated with VRP-CEA(6D), an alphavirus vector that increases the CD8+ effector memory T cell to Treg ratio.
BACKGROUND: There remains a significant need to eliminate the risk of recurrence of resected cancers. Cancer vaccines are well tolerated and activate tumor-specific immune effectors and lead to long-term survival in some patients. We hypothesized that vaccination with alphaviral replicon particles encoding tumor associated antigens would generate clinically significant antitumor immunity to enable prolonged overall survival (OS) in patients with both metastatic and resected cancer. METHODS: OS was monitored for patients with stage IV cancer treated in a phase I study of virus-like replicon particle (VRP)-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), an alphaviral replicon particle encoding a modified CEA. An expansion cohort of patients (n=12) with resected stage III colorectal cancer who had completed their standard postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy was administered VRP-CEA every 3 weeks for a total of 4 immunizations. OS and relapse-free survival (RFS) were determined, as well as preimmunization and postimmunization cellular and humoral immunity. RESULTS: Among the patients with stage IV cancer, median follow-up was 10.9 years and 5-year survival was 17%, (95% CI 6% to 33%). Among the patients with stage III cancer, the 5-year RFS was 75%, (95%CI 40% to 91%); no deaths were observed. At a median follow-up of 5.8 years (range: 3.9-7.0 years) all patients were still alive. All patients demonstrated CEA-specific humoral immunity. Patients with stage III cancer had an increase in CD8 +TEM (in 10/12) and decrease in FOXP3 +Tregs (in 10/12) following vaccination. Further, CEA-specific, IFNγ-producing CD8+granzyme B+TCM cells were increased. CONCLUSIONS: VRP-CEA induces antigen-specific effector T cells while decreasing Tregs, suggesting favorable immune modulation. Long-term survivors were identified in both cohorts, suggesting the OS may be prolonged.
Crosby, EJ; Hobeika, AC; Niedzwiecki, D; Rushing, C; Hsu, D; Berglund, P; Smith, J; Osada, T; Gwin Iii, WR; Hartman, ZC; Morse, MA; Lyerly, HK
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