Person Ability Scores as an Alternative to Norm-Referenced Scores as Outcome Measures in Studies of Neurodevelopmental Disorders.
Although norm-referenced scores are essential to the identification of disability, they possess several features which affect their sensitivity to change. Norm-referenced scores often decrease over time among people with neurodevelopmental disorders who exhibit slower-than-average increases in ability. Further, the reliability of norm-referenced scores is lower at the tails of the distribution, resulting in floor effects and increased measurement error for people with neurodevelopmental disorders. In contrast, the person ability scores generated during the process of constructing a standardized test with item response theory are designed to assess change. We illustrate these limitations of norm-referenced scores, and relative advantages of ability scores, using data from studies of autism spectrum disorder and creatine transporter deficiency.
Farmer, CA; Kaat, AJ; Thurm, A; Anselm, I; Akshoomoff, N; Bennett, A; Berry, L; Bruchey, A; Barshop, BA; Berry-Kravis, E; Bianconi, S; Cecil, KM; Davis, RJ; Ficicioglu, C; Porter, FD; Wainer, A; Goin-Kochel, RP; Leonczyk, C; Guthrie, W; Koeberl, D; Love-Nichols, J; Mamak, E; Mercimek-Andrews, S; Thomas, RP; Spiridigliozzi, GA; Sullivan, N; Sutton, VR; Udhnani, MD; Waisbren, SE; Miller, JS
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