Effects of indoor environment and lifestyle on respiratory health of children in Chongqing, China.
Background:The prevalence of certain respiratory diseases of children in China appears to be on the rise in recent decades. This study aims to explore residential environmental factors that may affect respiratory diseases and lung function of children and to assess the effects of lifestyle (diet and exercise) on lung function. Methods:The study was conducted in Chongqing, southwest of China in June, 2017. Information on respiratory diseases was obtained from 2,126 primary school children through a family questionnaire by purposive sampling. In addition, a random sample of 771 children participating in the family-questionnaire was selected for physical measurements and lung function test as well as lifestyle questionnaire survey. Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regressions were used to analyze the relationship between indoor environment and children's respiratory diseases. The effects of indoor environment and lifestyle on lung function indices were analyzed by t-test, variance analysis, and univariate and multivariate linear regression methods. Results:Among residential environmental factors, indoor ventilation and air circulation were significant associated with children's respiratory health outcomes. The use of air conditioning for more than 8 h/day in summer was a risk factor for asthma with an adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of 1.99, bronchitis (AOR =1.62), and allergic rhinitis (AOR =1.51). Ventilation for less than 12 h per day during summer increased the risk for allergic rhinitis (AOR =1.40). Children living in homes with an opened kitchen had the risk of developing allergic rhinitis 1.51 times higher than children living in homes with a closed kitchen. Indoor dampness and mold were significantly associated with increased risks for childhood asthma (AOR =2.16), bronchitis (AOR =1.55) and allergic rhinitis (AOR =1.55). The frequent use of hygienic incense and mosquito coils also increased the risk for asthma (AOR =2.58) and bronchitis (AOR =1.42) in children. The multiple linear regression results showed that frequent use of air fresheners reduced children's peak expiratory flow (PEF) and small airway function (FEF25-75) after potential influencing factors were adjusted for. Analyses of lifestyle variables showed that increased lung function (FVC, FEV1, FEV3) was associated with increasing consumption of vegetable and fruit as well as increasing time of physical exercise. Conclusions:This study identified the following residential risk factors for children's respiratory diseases in Chongqing: poor indoor ventilation, home dampness and mold presence, and frequent use of hygienic incense and mosquito coils. Frequent use of air fresheners is associated with reduced lung function in children. High frequency consumption of vegetables, fruits and dairy products as well as daily exercise for more than 1 hour have positive effects on children's lung development.
Li, W; Liu, Q; Chen, Y; Yang, B; Huang, X; Li, Y; Zhang, JJ
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